tcpdump is the premier network analysis tool, and this guide will show you how to use it effectively through numerous examples.
-nn : Don’t resolve hostnames or port names.
-S : Get the entire packet.
-X : Get hex output.
Let’s start with a basic command that will get us HTTPS traffic:
tcpdump -nnSX port 443
You can get a single packet with
-c 1, or n number with
This showed some HTTPS traffic, with a hex display visible on the right portion of the output (alas, it’s encrypted).
Now that you get the idea, let’s step through numerous examples that you are likely to need during your job as a network or security professional—or as any type of packet troubleshooter.
Just see what’s going on, by looking at what’s hitting your inteface.
Or get all interfaces with
tcpdump -i eth0
icmp, and many more.
One of the most common queries, using
host, you can see traffic that’s going to or from 22.214.171.124.
tcpdump host 126.96.36.199
If you only want to see traffic in one direction or the other, you can use
tcpdump src 188.8.131.52
tcpdump dst 184.108.40.206
To find packets going to or from a particular network or subnet, use the
You can combine this with the
dst options as well.
tcpdump net 220.127.116.11/24
Hex output is useful when you want to see the content of the packets in question, and it’s often best used when you’re isolating a few candidates for closer scrutiny.
tcpdump -c 1 -X icmp
You can find specific port traffic by using the
port option followed by the port number.
tcpdump port 3389
tcpdump src port 1025
If you’re looking for one particular kind of traffic, you can use tcp, udp, icmp, and many others as well.
You can also find all IP6 traffic using the protocol option.
You can also use a range of ports to find traffic.
tcpdump portrange 21-23
If you’re looking for packets of a particular size you can use these options. You can use less, greater, or their associated symbols that you would expect from mathematics.
tcpdump less 32
tcpdump greater 64
tcpdump <= 128
It’s often useful to save packet captures into a file for analysis in the future. These files are known as PCAP (PEE-cap) files, and they can be processed by hundreds of different applications, including network analyzers, intrusion detection systems, and of course by
tcpdump itself. Here we’re writing to a file called capture_file using the
tcpdump port 80 -w capture_file
You can read PCAP files by using the
-r switch. Note that you can use all the regular commands within tcpdump while reading in a file; you’re only limited by the fact that you can’t capture and process what doesn’t exist in the file already.
tcpdump -r capture_file
Now that we’ve seen what we can do with the basics through some examples, let’s look at some more advanced stuff.
Here are some additional ways to tweak how you call
-X: Show the packet’s contents in both hex and ASCII.
-XX: Same as
-X, but also shows the ethernet header.
-D: Show the list of available interfaces
-l: Line-readable output (for viewing as you save, or sending to other commands)
-q: Be less verbose (more quiet) with your output.
-t: Give human-readable timestamp output.
-tttt: Give maximally human-readable timestamp output.
-i eth0: Listen on the eth0 interface.
-vv: Verbose output (more v’s gives more output).
-c: Only get x number of packets and then stop.
-s: Define the snaplength (size) of the capture in bytes. Use
-s0to get everything, unless you are intentionally capturing less.
-S: Print absolute sequence numbers.
-e: Get the ethernet header as well.
-q: Show less protocol information.
-E: Decrypt IPSEC traffic by providing an encryption key.
It’s All About the Combinations
Being able to do these various things individually is powerful, but the real magic of
tcpdump comes from the ability to combine options in creative ways in order to isolate exactly what you’re looking for. There are three ways to do combinations, and if you’ve studied programming at all they’ll be pretty familiar to you.
Use this combination to see verbose output, with no resolution of hostnames or port numbers, using absolute sequence numbers, and showing human-readable timestamps.
Here are some examples of combined commands.
Let’s find all traffic from 10.5.2.3 going to any host on port 3389.
tcpdump -nnvvS src 10.5.2.3 and dst port 3389
Let’s look for all traffic coming from 192.168.x.x and going to the 10.x or 172.16.x.x networks, and we’re showing hex output with no hostname resolution and one level of extra verbosity.
tcpdump -nvX src net 192.168.0.0/16 and dst net 10.0.0.0/8 or 172.16.0.0/16
This will show us all traffic going to 192.168.0.2 that is not ICMP.
tcpdump dst 192.168.0.2 and src net and not icmp
This will show us all traffic from a host that isn’t SSH traffic (assuming default port usage).
tcpdump -vv src mars and not dst port 22
As you can see, you can build queries to find just about anything you need. The key is to first figure out precisely what you’re looking for and then to build the syntax to isolate that specific type of traffic.
Keep in mind that when you’re building complex queries you might have to group your options using single quotes. Single quotes are used in order to tell
tcpdump to ignore certain special characters—in this case below the “( )” brackets. This same technique can be used to group using other expressions such as
tcpdump 'src 10.0.2.4 and (dst port 3389 or 22)'
You can also use filters to isolate packets with specific TCP flags set.
Isolate TCP RST flags.
The filters below find these various packets because
tcp looks at offset 13 in the TCP header, the number represents the location within the byte, and the !=0 means that the flag in question is set to 1, i.e. it’s on.
tcpdump 'tcp & 4!=0'
tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] == tcp-rst'
Isolate TCP SYN flags.
tcpdump 'tcp & 2!=0'
tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] == tcp-syn'
Isolate packets that have both the SYN and ACK flags set.
Only the PSH, RST, SYN, and FIN flags are displayed in
tcpdump‘s flag field output. URGs and ACKs are displayed, but they are shown elsewhere in the output rather than in the flags field.
Isolate TCP URG flags.
tcpdump 'tcp & 32!=0'
tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] == tcp-urg'
Isolate TCP ACK flags.
tcpdump 'tcp & 16!=0'
tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] == tcp-ack'
Isolate TCP PSH flags.
tcpdump 'tcp & 8!=0'
tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] == tcp-psh'
Isolate TCP FIN flags.
tcpdump 'tcp & 1!=0'
tcpdump 'tcp[tcpflags] == tcp-fin'
Because tcpdump can output content in ASCII, you can use it to search for cleartext content using other command-line tools like
Finally, now that we the theory out of the way, here are a number of quick recipes you can use for catching various kinds of traffic.
tcpdump 'tcp = 6'
-l switch lets you see the traffic as you’re capturing it, and helps when sending to commands like
tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'User-Agent:'
tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'GET'
tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'Host:'
tcpdump -vvAls0 | grep 'Set-Cookie|Host:|Cookie:'
This one works regardless of what port the connection comes in on, because it’s getting the banner response.
tcpdump 'tcp[(tcp>>2):4] = 0x5353482D'
tcpdump -vvAs0 port 53
tcpdump -vvAs0 port ftp or ftp-data
tcpdump -vvAs0 port 123
tcpdump port http or port ftp or port smtp or port imap or port pop3 or port telnet -lA | egrep -i -B5 'pass=|pwd=|log=|login=|user=|username=|pw=|passw=|passwd= |password=|pass:|user:|username:|password:|login:|pass |user '
There’s a bit in the IP header that never gets set by legitimate applications, which we call the “Evil Bit”. Here’s a fun filter to find packets where it’s been toggled.
tcpdump 'ip & 128 != 0'
Check out my other tutorials as well.
Here are the takeaways.
tcpdumpis a valuable tool for anyone looking to get into networking or information security.
- The raw way it interfaces with traffic, combined with the precision it offers in inspecting packets make it the best possible tool for learning TCP/IP.
- Protocol Analyzers like Wireshark are great, but if you want to truly master packet-fu, you must become one with
Well, this primer should get you going strong, but the man page should always be handy for the most advanced and one-off usage scenarios. I truly hope this has been useful to you, and feel free to contact me if you have any questions.
- I’m currently (sort of) writing a book on tcpdump for No Starch Press.
- The leading image is from SecurityWizardry.com.
- Some of the isolation filters borrowed from Sébastien Wains.
- Thanks to Peter at hackertarget.com for inspiration on the new table of contents (simplified), and also for some additional higher-level protocol filters added in July 2018.
- An anagram for the TCP flags is: Unskilled Attackers Pester Real Security Folk.