Data Collection: No data, no visuals (see also Where Data Analytics and Security Collide). This is the foundation. Data needs to be available and accessible. Generally it is centralized in a big data store (it used to be relational databases and that’s a viable solution as well). This step generally involves parsing data. Turning unstructured data or semi-structured data into structured data. Although a fairly old problem, this is still a huge issue. I wonder if anyone is going to come up with a novel solution in this space anytime soon! The traditional regular expression based approach just doesn’t scale. Data Analysis: Once data is centralized or accessible via a federated data store, you have to do something with it. A lot of companies are using Excel to do the first iteration of data analysis. Some are using R, SAS, or other statistics and data analytics software. One of the core problems here is data cleansing. Another huge problem is understanding the data itself. Not every data set is as self explanatory as sales data. Context Integration: Often we collect data, analyze it, and then realize that the data doesn’t really contain enough information to understand it. For example in network security. What does the machine behind a specific IP address do? Is it a Web server? This is where we start adding more context: roles of machines, roles of users, etc. This can significantly increase the value of data analytics. Visualization: Lets be clear about what I refer to as visualization. I am using visualization to mean reporting and dashboards. Reports are static summaries of historical data. They help communicate information. Dashboards are used to communicate information in real-time (or near real-time) to create situational awareness. Visual Analytics: This is where things are getting interesting. Interactive interfaces are used as a means to understand and reason about the data. Often linked views, brushing, and dynamic queries are key technologies used to give the user the most freedom to look at and analyze the data. Collaboration: It is one thing to have one analyst look at data and apply his/her own knowledge to understand the data. It’s another thing to have people collaborate on data and use their joint ‘wisdom’. Dissemination: Once an analysis is done, the job of the analyst is not. The newly found insights have to be shared and communicated to other groups or people in order for them to take action based on the findings. Put in Action: This could be regarded as part of the dissemination step. This step is about operationalizing the information. In the case of security information management, this is where the knowledge is encoded in correlation rules to catch future instances of the same or similar incidents.